This is a copy of the original article for archival purposes: https://blog.fox-it.com/2020/11/11/decrypting-openssh-sessions-for-fun-and-profit/
A while ago we had a forensics case in which a Linux server was compromised and a modified OpenSSH binary was loaded into the memory of a webserver. The modified OpenSSH binary was used as a backdoor to the system for the attackers. The customer had pcaps and a hypervisor snapshot of the system on the moment it was compromised. We started wondering if it was possible to decrypt the SSH session and gain knowledge of it by recovering key material from the memory snapshot. In this blogpost I will cover the research I have done into OpenSSH and release some tools to dump OpenSSH session keys from memory and decrypt and parse sessions in combinarion with pcaps. I have also submitted my research to the 2020 Volatility framework plugin contest.
After c0ne build the vulnerable binary for the knock-knock challenge, he now made a complete boot2root VM with 5 levels: Pandora’s Box! I had the pleasure of being one of the testers for the vulnurable binaries, so I got a sneak peek for level 2 and 3 (after which level 2 changed quite a bit). I’l be splitting up the writeup per level and I’l only describe the final levels that ended up in the VM. Continue reading
So.. My first CTF writeup! I participated with a few others in the Pwnium capture-the-flag. One of the challenges I looked at was the Reverse Engineering challenge “Kernel Land”. The challenge gave a link to a binary with the tip: “The third Tick gives you the answer ;)”. After a first peek it appeared to be a linux binary:
root@kalipwn:~/Downloads# file kernel Continue reading
kernel: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, not stripped